Andy

手民

文化具体有什么可能性

發布於

最近忙里偷闲,写了一个政治经济模拟器。

写到土地财产继承法,搜集各地风俗,无意发现了个财宝:Ethnographic Atlas(EA)。大致是说,60年代,耶鲁的人类学家George Murdock发布了一个数据表,搜集全球各部落、村庄、社会,对照多个变量评分。此后多次增补,现在的数据集有1291个社会,94个变量。

这94个变量,覆盖生活的各个方面,比如食物靠种田还是渔猎,房顶是尖的圆的还是两个坡的,织布是男人还是女人做,等等。对我而言,这些变量本身就挺有意思的。

我把EA资料搜集成了一个txt,见后文。

Murdock后来了好做了一个复杂得多的模型,叫Standard Cross Culture Sample(SCCS),有1700个变量,文本内容一万多行,贴到Matters编辑器会挂,我放到GitHub去:https://gist.github.com/blaesus/0e5ec1d611f81833f04427181b2ec6cc

选几个EA和SCCS上好玩的文化选择:

SCCS128. Intermediate Processing: Loom Weaving (sexual division of labor)

[NA] NA (16)

[1] Males Exclusively (24)

[0] Task Absent (81)

[-1] Task present, sex unspecified (1)

[1] Males Exclusively (24)

[3] Equally (6)

[4] Females Predominantly (8)

[5] Females Exclusively (50)

(有24个社会男人织布,女人不准织)

SCCS704. Private Property

[NA] NA (102)

[1] Absent (70)

[2] Present (14)

(多数有数据的社会没有私有财产。圣卡尔诚不我欺?)

SCCS178. Impotence

[NA] NA (149)

[1] No concern (7)

[2] Concern (30)

(蒙田:hmmmm)

我想找的土地继承法:

EA075. Inheritance distribution for real property (land)

[NA] Missing data (471)

[1] Equally distributed (307)

[2] Best qualified (20)

[3] Ultimogeniture (22)

[4] Primogeniture (248)

[9] No inher. of real property (223)

(注意有很多社会不把土地当私产,所以也无所谓继承。玩过CK2的应该很熟悉了,均分继承法导致中欧碎裂,幼子继承法蒙古人就是这么干的)

--- EA数据内容 ---

Ethnographic Atlas

https://d-place.org/contributions/EA


EA001. Subsistence economy: gathering

Dependence on the gathering of wild plants and small land fauna, relative to other subsistence activities.

[0] 0-5% (722)

[1] 6-15% (265)

[2] 16-25% (118)

[3] 26-35% (62)

[4] 36-45% (48)

[5] 46-55% (35)

[6] 56-65% (31)

[7] 66-75% (6)

[8] 76-85% (3)

[9] 86-100% (0)

[NA] Missing data (1)


EA002. Subsistence economy: hunting

Dependence on hunting, including trapping and fowling, relative to other subsistence activities.

[0] 0-5% (395)

[1] 6-15% (452)

[2] 16-25% (177)

[3] 26-35% (139)

[4] 36-45% (68)

[5] 46-55% (28)

[6] 56-65% (12)

[7] 66-75% (6)

[8] 76-85% (10)

[9] 86-100% (3)

[NA] Missing data (1)


EA003. Subsistence economy: fishing

Dependence on fishing, including shellfishing and the pursuit of large aquatic animals, relative to other subsistence activities.

[0] 0-5% (451)

[1] 6-15% (341)

[2] 16-25% (208)

[3] 26-35% (107)

[4] 36-45% (78)

[5] 46-55% (61)

[6] 56-65% (26)

[7] 66-75% (9)

[8] 76-85% (8)

[9] 86-100% (1)

[NA] Missing data (1)


EA004. Subsistence economy: animal husbandry

Dependence on animal husbandry, relative to other subsistence activities.

[0] 0-5% (434)

[1] 6-15% (344)

[2] 16-25% (230)

[3] 26-35% (139)

[4] 36-45% (57)

[5] 46-55% (34)

[6] 56-65% (13)

[7] 66-75% (12)

[8] 76-85% (15)

[9] 86-100% (12)

[NA] Missing data (1)


EA005. Subsistence economy: agriculture

Dependence on agriculture, relative to other subsistence activities.

[0] 0-5% (257)

[1] 6-15% (50)

[2] 16-25% (34)

[3] 26-35% (38)

[4] 36-45% (93)

[5] 46-55% (209)

[6] 56-65% (295)

[7] 66-75% (206)

[8] 76-85% (87)

[9] 86-100% (21)

[NA] Missing data (1)


EA006. Transactions at marriage: prevailing type

Prevailing type of transfer or exchange at marriage.

[NA] Missing data (19)

[1] Bride-wealth (657)

[2] Bride-service (125)

[3] Token bride-wealth (68)

[4] Gift exchange (65)

[5] Woman exchange (39)

[6] Insignificant (275)

[7] Dowry (43)


EA007. Transactions at marriage: alternate type

Alternative types of transfer or exchange at marriage, or supplementary practices.

[NA] Missing data (19)

[1] Bride-wealth (29)

[2] Bride-service (123)

[3] Token bride-wealth (31)

[4] Gift exchange (0)

[5] Woman exchange (19)

[6] Insignificant (6)

[7] Dowry (28)

[8] No alternate (1036)


EA008. Domestic organization

The prevailing form of domestic or familial organization.

[NA] Missing data (28)

[1] Nuclear, monogamous (111)

[2] Nuclear, limited polygyny (271)

[3] Polyandrous (3)

[4] Polygyny, atypical cowives pattern (58)

[5] Polygyny, typical cowives pattern (222)

[6] Minimal extended (43)

[7] Small extended (321)

[8] Large extended (234)


EA009. Marital composition: monogamy and polygamy

Marital composition of family units, regardless of whether families live as independent nuclear units or as part of larger extended families.

[NA] Missing data (34)

[1] Monogamous (201)

[2] Limited polygyny (463)

[3] Polygyny, sororal cohabit (69)

[4] Polygyny, sororal separate quarters (18)

[5] Polygyny, non-sororal separate quarters (344)

[6] Polygyny, non-sororal cohabit (158)

[7] Polyandrous (4)


EA010. Marital residence with kin: first years

Pattern of marital residence in the first years or so of marriage. The variable "Marital residence with kin: change after first years" indicates whether or not this differs from the pattern of marital residence in later years.

[NA] Missing data (24)

[1] Avunculocal (27)

[2] Ambilocal (60)

[3] Avuncu-uxorilocal (2)

[4] Avuncu-virilocal (7)

[5] Matrilocal (56)

[6] Neolocal (41)

[7] Separate (22)

[8] Patrilocal (561)

[9] Uxorilocal (249)

[10] Virilocal (131)

[11] Ambi-uxo (31)

[12] Ambi-viri (80)


EA201. Marital residence with kin: change after first years

Indicates whether or not the pattern of marital residence differs in the first years of marriage relative to later years.

[NA] Missing data (24)

[1] Different (245)

[2] Same (1022)


EA011. Transfer of residence at marriage: prevailing pattern

The prevailing pattern of transfer of residence at marriage (note: not in original EA, summarized from variable describing marital residence with kin).

[NA] Missing data (24)

[1] Wife to husband (862)

[2] Ambi/neo-local (294)

[3] Husband to wife (103)

[9] Separate (8)


EA012. Marital residence with kin: prevailing pattern

The prevailing profile of marital residence in the society.

[NA] Missing data (24)

[1] Avunculocal (54)

[2] Ambilocal (83)

[3] Avuncu-uxorilocal (5)

[4] Avuncu-virilocal (11)

[5] Matrilocal (58)

[6] Neolocal (62)

[7] Separate (8)

[8] Patrilocal (638)

[9] Uxorilocal (45)

[10] Virilocal (159)

[11] Ambi-uxo (37)

[12] Ambi-viri (107)


EA013. Transfer of residence at marriage: alternate

Culturally patterned alternatives to, or numerically significant deviations from, the prevailing pattern of transfer of residence at marriage (note: not in original EA, summarized from variable describing marital residence with kin).

[NA] Missing data (24)

[1] Wife to husband (82)

[2] Ambi/neo-local (127)

[3] Husband to wife (154)

[4] Separate (1)

[9] No alternate (903)


EA014. Marital residence with kin: alternate

Culturally patterned alternatives to, or numerically significant deviations from, the prevailing profile of marital residence.

[NA] Missing data (24)

[1] Avunculocal (74)

[2] Ambilocal (6)

[3] Avuncu-uxorilocal (6)

[4] Avuncu-virilocal (3)

[5] Matrilocal (3)

[6] Neolocal (136)

[7] Separate (1)

[8] Patrilocal (10)

[9] Uxorilocal (151)

[10] Virilocal (84)

[11] No alternate (793)


EA015. Community marriage organization

The prevalence of local endogamy, agamy, and exogamy, together with the presence or absence of localized kin groups. The specific structure of clans, whether ambilocal, matrilocal, or patrilocal, is revealed by the variable describing prevailing patterns of residence with kin.

[NA] Missing data (189)

[1] Demes (83)

[2] Segmented, no exogamy (261)

[3] Agamous (396)

[4] Exogamous (117)

[5] Segmented, exogamy (8)

[6] Clans (237)


EA016. Organization of clan communities

Indicates whether or not societies organized as clan-communities (i.e., where communities represent a single, localized, exogamous kin group or clan) are also segmented into clan barrios.

[NA] Missing data (189)

[1] Clans (194)

[2] Clans with barrios (43)

[9] No exogamous clans (865)


EA017. Largest patrilineal kin group

The largest type of patrilineal kin group reported for the society.

[NA] Missing data (14)

[1] None (593)

[2] Exogamy only (1)

[3] Lineages (170)

[4] Sibs (400)

[5] Phratries (62)

[6] Moieties (51)


EA018. Largest patrilineal exogamous group

The largest patrilineal kin group characterized by exogamy.

[NA] Missing data (14)

[1] No exogamy (708)

[2] Extended taboo (1)

[3] Lineages (221)

[4] Sibs (289)

[5] Phratries (30)

[6] Moieties (28)


EA019. Largest matrilineal kin group

The largest type of matrilineal kin group reported for the society.

[NA] Missing data (14)

[1] None (1052)

[2] Exogamy only (14)

[3] Lineages (44)

[4] Sibs (120)

[5] Phratries (17)

[6] Moieties (30)


EA020. Largest matrilineal exogamous group

The largest matrilineal kin group characterized by exogamy.

[NA] Missing data (14)

[1] No exogamy (1063)

[2] Extended taboo (14)

[3] Lineages (68)

[4] Sibs (100)

[5] Phratries (9)

[6] Moieties (23)


EA021. Cognatic kin groups

The presence or probable absence, and the typology, of cognatic kin groups.

[NA] Missing data (13)

[1] Bilateral inferred (285)

[2] Bilateral kindreds (122)

[3] Ambilineal (4)

[4] Ramages (39)

[5] Exogamous ramages (9)

[6] Quasi-lineages (13)

[9] No cognatic kin (806)


EA022. Secondary cognatic kin group: kindreds and ramages

The presence or probable absence, and the typology, of secondary cognatic kin groups. This variable highlights societies for which both kindreds (bilateral descent) and ramages (ambilineal descent) are reported.

[NA] Missing data (13)

[2] Kindreds (16)

[4] Ramages (3)

[9] No secondary groups (1259)


EA023. Cousin marriages permitted

The rules or practices governing the marriageability or nonmarriageability of a man's first cousins and, in some cases, second cousins.

[NA] Missing data (249)

[1] Cross-cousin (206)

[2] Paternal only (1)

[3] Maternal only (8)

[4] FaBrDa/MoBrDa only (0)

[5] FaSiDa/MoSiDa only (0)

[6] Matrilateral cross only (44)

[7] No first/second cousins (282)

[8] No first cousins (277)

[9] Patrilateral cross only (5)

[10] Any first cousins (117)

[11] Some second only (13)

[12] Only second cousins (64)

[13] Trilateral (25)


EA024. Cousin marriages permitted: subtypes

Number of types of cousins (first and/or second cousins) a man is permitted to marry.

[NA] Missing data (249)

[1] Quadrilateral (117)

[2] Trilateral (25)

[3] Duolateral (215)

[4] Unilateral (49)

[5] Only second cousins (64)

[6] Some second only (13)

[7] No first cousins (277)

[8] No first/second cousins (282)


EA025. Cousin marriages preferred

Preferred rather than just permitted marriages to particular first (and/or second) cousins.

[NA] Missing data (249)

[1] Cross-cousin: either (81)

[2] Cross-cousin: matri (44)

[3] Cross-cousin: patri (13)

[4] Maternal: MoBrDa (2)

[5] Uni: MoBrDa (27)

[6] Uni: FaSiDa (3)

[7] All: FaBrDa (44)

[8] All: cross (7)

[9] All: matri (4)

[10] Some second only (7)

[11] Second cousins preferred (7)

[12] Tri: bilateral (4)

[13] Tri: matrilateral (1)

[14] Tri: patrilateral (1)

[15] None preferred (797)


EA026. Cousin marriages preferred: subtypes

Specific type(s) of cousin preferred as spouses.

[NA] Missing data (249)

[1] Cross-cousin (92)

[2] MoBrDa (78)

[3] FaSiDa (17)

[4] FaBrDa (44)

[5] Second cousin (14)

[9] None preferred (797)


EA027. Kin terms for cousins

Extent to which names for cousins distinguish cousin subtypes and/or among other groups of kin.

[NA] Missing data (336)

[1] Crow (58)

[2] Descriptive (81)

[3] Eskimo (110)

[4] Hawaiian (338)

[5] Iroquois (256)

[6] Omaha (79)

[7] Sudanese (15)

[8] Mixed (18)


EA028. Agriculture: intensity

Intensity of cultivation.

[NA] Missing data (103)

[1] No agriculture (241)

[2] Casual (43)

[3] Extensive/shifting (471)

[4] Horticulture (100)

[5] Intensive (207)

[6] Intensive irrigated (126)


EA029. Agriculture: major crop type

Principal type of crop cultivated.

[NA] Missing data (112)

[1] No agriculture (241)

[2] Non-food (2)

[3] Vegetables (5)

[4] Tree-fruits (80)

[5] Roots/tubers (232)

[6] Cereals (619)


EA030. Settlement patterns

The prevailing type of settlement pattern.

[NA] Missing data (104)

[1] Nomadic (81)

[2] Seminomadic (188)

[3] Semisedentary (97)

[4] Impermanent (15)

[5] Dispersed homesteads (151)

[6] Hamlets (106)

[7] Villages/towns (518)

[8] Complex permanent (31)


EA031. Mean size of local communities

The average population of local communities, whatever the pattern of settlement, computed from census data or other evidence.

[NA] Missing data (680)

[1] <50 (118)

[2] 50-99 (119)

[3] 100-199 (106)

[4] 200-399 (86)

[5] 400-1000 (61)

[6] 1000+ no towns (17)

[7] 5000-50000 (38)

[8] 50000+ (66)


EA032. Jurisdictional hierarchy of local community

The number of jurisdictional levels in the local community, with 2 representing the theoretical minimum (e.g., independent nuclear or polygynous families) and 4 representing the theoretical maximum (e.g., nuclear families nested within extended families and clan-barrios). See the variable "Jurisdictional hierarchy beyond the local community" for information on organization beyond the local community. Note that different types of organization on the same level, e.g., a consanguineal lineage and its localized equivalent, are counted as one, and organizations not held to be legitimate, e.g., imposed colonial regimes, are excluded.

[NA] Missing data (124)

[2] Independent families (370)

[3] Extended families (644)

[4] Clan-barrios (153)


EA033. Jurisdictional hierarchy beyond local community

The number of jurisdictional levels beyond the local community, with 1 representing the theoretical minimum (e.g., none/autonomous bands or villages) and 4 representing the theoretical maximum (e.g., villages nested within parishes, districts, provinces, and a complex state). This variable also provides a measure of political complexity, ranging from 1 for stateless societies, through 2 or 3 for petty and larger paramount chiefdoms or their equivalent, to 4 or 5 for large states. Note that different types of organization on the same level are counted as one, and organizations not held to be legitimate, e.g., imposed colonial regimes, are excluded.

[NA] Missing data (136)

[1] Acephalous (525)

[2] One level (341)

[3] Two levels (162)

[4] Three levels (83)

[5] Four levels (44)


EA034. Religion: high gods

The range of beliefs in high gods. A high god is defined, following Swanson, as a spiritual being who is believed to have created all reality and/or to be its ultimate governor, even if his sole act was to create other spirits who, in turn, created or control the natural world.

[NA] Missing data (516)

[1] Absent (277)

[2] Otiose (258)

[3] Active, but not supporting morality (42)

[4] Active, supporting morality (198)


EA035. Games

Types of games practiced. Following Roberts, only games with an outcome, i.e., a winner and a loser, are treated.

[NA] Missing data (805)

[1] No games (26)

[2] Physical skill only (106)

[3] Chance only (2)

[4] Physical skill and chance (5)

[5] Strategy only (250)

[6] Strategy and physical skill (39)

[7] Strategy and chance (0)

[8] All types (58)


EA036. Post-partum sex taboos

The normal duration of post-partum sex taboos, i.e., those requiring a lactating mother to refrain from sexual intercourse.

[NA] Missing data (919)

[1] No taboo (8)

[2] Up to one month (74)

[3] One to six months (120)

[4] Six months to a year (39)

[5] A year to two years (73)

[6] More than two years (58)


EA037. Male genital mutilations

The practice of circumcision or any of its variants, when culturally normative and not sporadic or merely optional, as well as the age at which it typically occurs.

[NA] Missing data (175)

[1] Absent (746)

[2] Shortly after birth (13)

[3] Infancy (29)

[4] Early childhood (24)

[5] Late childhood (72)

[6] Adolescence (117)

[7] Early adulthood (12)

[8] Maturity (5)

[9] Old age (1)

[10] Customary, age unclear (97)


EA038. Segregation of adolescent boys

Degree and mode of segregating boys at or approaching puberty.

[NA] Missing data (538)

[1] No segregation (454)

[2] Partial (136)

[3] Complete: outside nuclear family (38)

[4] Complete: outside kin (10)

[5] Complete: own peers (115)


EA039. Domestic animals: plow cultivation

Indicates whether or not animals are employed in plow cultivation, and whether plow cultivation is aboriginal or dates to the post-contact period.

[NA] Missing data (109)

[1] Absent (1006)

[2] Not aboriginal but present (22)

[3] Present (154)


EA040. Domestic animals: type

The predominant type of animals kept.

[NA] Missing data (109)

[1] Absence or near absence (323)

[2] Pigs (113)

[3] Sheep/goats (180)

[4] Equine (69)

[5] Deer (13)

[6] Camelids (26)

[7] Bovine (458)


EA041. Domestic animals: milking

Indicates whether or not domestic animals milked.

[NA] Missing data (109)

[1] Absence or near absence (806)

[2] More than sporadically (376)


EA042. Subsistence economy: dominant activity

Dominant mode of subsistence (note: not in original EA; derived from other variables on subsistence and type of agriculture).

[NA] Missing for at least 1 activity (1)

[1] Gathering (103)

[2] Fishing (121)

[3] Hunting (77)

[4] Pastoralism (77)

[5] Casual agriculture (0)

[6] Extensive agriculture (477)

[7] Intensive agriculture (282)

[8] Two or more sources (67)

[9] Agriculture, type unknown (86)


EA043. Descent: major type

Major mode of descent (note: not in original EA; derived from variables describing patrilineal and matrilineal kin groups EA017, EA019 and EA021).

[NA] Missing data (17)

[1] Patrilineal (590)

[2] Duolateral (52)

[3] Matrilineal (160)

[4] Quasi-lineages (12)

[5] Ambilineal (48)

[6] Bilateral (362)

[7] Mixed (50)


EA044. Sex differences: metal working

Specialization by sex in such arts as smelting, casting, and forging, i.e., only those which involve the application of fire.

[NA] Missing data (316)

[1] Males alone (446)

[2] Both, males more (1)

[3] Differentiated but equal (0)

[4] Equal participation (0)

[5] Both, females more (0)

[6] Females alone (0)

[7] Sex irrelevant (1)

[8] Activity present, sex diff. unspecified (5)

[9] Activity is absent (522)


EA045. Sex differences: weaving

Specialization by sex in the manufacture of true cloth on a loom or frame; not including the manufacture of nets, baskets, mats, or nonwoven fabrics like barkcloth or felt.

[NA] Missing data (446)

[1] Males alone (97)

[2] Both, males more (5)

[3] Differentiated but equal (17)

[4] Equal participation (10)

[5] Both, females more (7)

[6] Females alone (189)

[7] Sex irrelevant (13)

[8] Activity present, sex diff. unspecified (60)

[9] Activity is absent (447)


EA046. Sex differences: leather working

Specialization by sex in the dressing of skins, e.g., by tanning; not including the manufacture of artifacts from raw hides or undressed skins.

[NA] Missing data (656)

[1] Males alone (166)

[2] Both, males more (7)

[3] Differentiated but equal (4)

[4] Equal participation (19)

[5] Both, females more (18)

[6] Females alone (144)

[7] Sex irrelevant (4)

[8] Activity present, sex diff. unspecified (106)

[9] Activity is absent (167)


EA047. Sex differences: pottery making

Specialization by sex in the manufacture of earthenware utensils.

[NA] Missing data (426)

[1] Males alone (42)

[2] Both, males more (4)

[3] Differentiated but equal (7)

[4] Equal participation (6)

[5] Both, females more (12)

[6] Females alone (345)

[7] Sex irrelevant (8)

[8] Activity present, sex diff. unspecified (131)

[9] Activity is absent (310)


EA048. Sex differences: boat building

Specialization by sex in the construction of true water craft; not including the making of simple floats, rafts, or the like.

[NA] Missing data (589)

[1] Males alone (253)

[2] Both, males more (9)

[3] Differentiated but equal (4)

[4] Equal participation (1)

[5] Both, females more (0)

[6] Females alone (3)

[7] Sex irrelevant (1)

[8] Activity present, sex diff. unspecified (160)

[9] Activity is absent (271)


EA049. Sex differences: house construction

Specialization by sex in the actual building of a permanent dwelling or the erection of a transportable shelter; not including the acquisition or preliminary preparation of the materials used.

[NA] Missing data (715)

[1] Males alone (362)

[2] Both, males more (74)

[3] Differentiated but equal (34)

[4] Equal participation (24)

[5] Both, females more (9)

[6] Females alone (69)

[7] Sex irrelevant (0)

[8] Activity present, sex diff. unspecified (1)

[9] Activity is absent (3)


EA050. Sex differences: gathering

Specialization by sex in the gathering of wild plants and small land fauna.

[NA] Missing data (630)

[1] Males alone (19)

[2] Both, males more (17)

[3] Differentiated but equal (19)

[4] Equal participation (40)

[5] Both, females more (132)

[6] Females alone (262)

[7] Sex irrelevant (0)

[8] Activity present, sex diff. unspecified (4)

[9] Activity is absent (168)


EA051. Sex differences: hunting

Specialization by sex in hunting, including trapping and fowling.

[NA] Missing data (326)

[1] Males alone (861)

[2] Both, males more (14)

[3] Differentiated but equal (0)

[4] Equal participation (0)

[5] Both, females more (0)

[6] Females alone (0)

[7] Sex irrelevant (0)

[8] Activity present, sex diff. unspecified (0)

[9] Activity is absent (90)


EA052. Sex Differences: fishing

Specialization by sex in fishing, including shellfishing and the pursuit of large aquatic animals.

[NA] Missing data (445)

[1] Males alone (315)

[2] Both, males more (207)

[3] Differentiated but equal (55)

[4] Equal participation (41)

[5] Both, females more (18)

[6] Females alone (20)

[7] Sex irrelevant (0)

[8] Activity present, sex diff. unspecified (5)

[9] Activity is absent (185)


EA053. Sex differences: animal husbandry

Specialization by sex in animal husbandry.

[NA] Missing data (481)

[1] Males alone (197)

[2] Both, males more (111)

[3] Differentiated but equal (71)

[4] Equal participation (40)

[5] Both, females more (23)

[6] Females alone (44)

[7] Sex irrelevant (0)

[8] Activity present, sex diff. unspecified (4)

[9] Activity is absent (320)


EA054. Sex differences: agriculture

Specialization by sex in agriculture.

[NA] Missing data (314)

[1] Males alone (72)

[2] Both, males more (170)

[3] Differentiated but equal (92)

[4] Equal participation (141)

[5] Both, females more (228)

[6] Females alone (32)

[7] Sex irrelevant (0)

[8] Activity present, sex diff. unspecified (1)

[9] Activity is absent (241)


EA055. Age or occupational specialization: metal working

Age or occupational specialization in such arts as smelting, casting, and forging, i.e., only those which involve the application of fire.

[NA] Missing data (316)

[1] Junior age (0)

[2] Senior age (0)

[3] Craft (427)

[4] Industrial (2)

[9] Most adults (24)

[10] Activity is absent (522)


EA056. Age or occupational specialization: weaving

Age or occupational specialization in the manufacture of true cloth on a loom or frame; not including the manufacture of nets, baskets, mats, or nonwoven fabrics like barkcloth or felt.

[NA] Missing data (446)

[1] Junior age (0)

[2] Senior age (0)

[3] Craft (46)

[4] Industrial (16)

[9] Most adults (337)

[10] Activity is absent (446)


EA057. Age or occupational specialization: leather working

Age or occupational specialization in the dressing of skins, e.g., by tanning; not including the manufacture of artifacts from raw hides or undressed skins.

[NA] Missing data (656)

[1] Junior age (0)

[2] Senior age (0)

[3] Craft (73)

[4] Industrial (4)

[9] Most adults (392)

[10] Activity is absent (166)


EA058. Age or occupational specialization: pottery making

Age or occupational specialization in the manufacture of earthenware utensils.

[NA] Missing data (426)

[1] Junior age (0)

[2] Senior age (2)

[3] Craft (70)

[4] Industrial (8)

[9] Most adults (477)

[10] Activity is absent (308)


EA059. Age or occupational specialization: boat building

Age or occupational specialization in the construction of true water craft; not including the making of simple floats, rafts, or the like.

[NA] Missing data (589)

[1] Junior age (0)

[2] Senior age (0)

[3] Craft (45)

[4] Industrial (1)

[9] Most adults (388)

[10] Activity is absent (268)


EA060. Age or occupational specialization: house construction

Age or occupational specialization in the actual building of a permanent dwelling or the erection of a transportable shelter; not including the acquisition or preliminary preparation of the materials used.

[NA] Missing data (715)

[1] Junior age (0)

[2] Senior age (0)

[3] Craft (39)

[4] Industrial (0)

[9] Most adults (534)

[10] Activity is absent (3)


EA061. Age or occupational specialization: gathering

Age or occupational specialization in the gathering of wild plants and small land fauna.

[NA] Missing data (630)

[1] Junior age (1)

[2] Senior age (0)

[3] Craft (0)

[4] Industrial (0)

[9] Most adults (493)

[10] Activity is absent (167)


EA062. Age or occupational specialization: hunting

Age or occupational specialization in hunting, including trapping and fowling.

[NA] Missing data (327)

[1] Junior age (1)

[2] Senior age (0)

[3] Craft (24)

[4] Industrial (0)

[9] Most adults (848)

[10] Activity is absent (91)


EA063. Age or occupational specialization: fishing

Age or occupational specialization in fishing, including shellfishing and the pursuit of large aquatic animals.

[NA] Missing data (445)

[1] Junior age (0)

[2] Senior age (0)

[3] Craft (26)

[4] Industrial (0)

[9] Most adults (637)

[10] Activity is absent (183)


EA064. Age or occupational specialization: animal husbandry

Age or occupational specialization in animal husbandry.

[NA] Missing data (481)

[1] Junior age (18)

[2] Senior age (0)

[3] Craft (5)

[4] Industrial (0)

[9] Most adults (469)

[10] Activity is absent (318)


EA065. Age or occupational specialization: agriculture

Age or occupational specialization in agriculture.

[NA] Missing data (314)

[1] Junior age (0)

[2] Senior age (0)

[3] Craft (1)

[4] Industrial (0)

[9] Most adults (736)

[10] Activity is absent (240)


EA066. Class differentiation: primary

The degree and type of class differentiation, excluding purely political and religious statuses. See also "Class differentiation: secondary," as some societies exhibit important features of two different types of class differentation.

[NA] Missing data (182)

[1] Absence of distinctions (538)

[2] Wealth distinctions (217)

[3] Elite stratification (40)

[4] Dual stratification (228)

[5] Complex stratification (86)


EA067. Class differentiation: secondary features

Secondary type of class differentiation present in the society, excluding purely political and religious statuses. See also "Class differentiation: primary".

[NA] Missing data (182)

[1] Absence of distinctions (0)

[2] Wealth distinctions (16)

[3] Elite stratification (11)

[4] Dual stratification (12)

[5] Complex stratification (11)

[9] No secondary type (1059)


EA068. Caste differentiation: primary

The degree and type of caste differentiation. See also "Caste differentiation: secondary," as some societies exhibit important features of two different types of caste differentation.

[NA] Missing data (188)

[1] Absence of distinctions (940)

[2] Despised occupation groups (103)

[3] Ethnic stratification (33)

[4] Complex caste stratification (27)


EA069. Caste differentiation: secondary features

Secondary type of caste differentiation. See also "Caste differentiation: primary".

[NA] Missing data (188)

[1] Absence of distinctions (0)

[2] Despised occupation groups (4)

[3] Ethnic stratification (3)

[4] Complex caste stratification (0)

[9] No secondary type (1096)


EA070. Slavery: type

The forms and prevalence of slave status, treated quite independently of both class and caste status.

[NA] Missing data (170)

[1] Absence of slavery (546)

[2] Slavery, nonhereditary (131)

[3] Slavery, no info on heritability (217)

[4] Slavery, hereditary (227)


EA071. Slavery: timing

Indicates whether slavery present at the time of observation of the society, or only in the past.

[NA] Missing data (171)

[1] Slavery never practiced (535)

[2] Past slavery (303)

[3] Past and present slavery (282)


EA072. Political succession

Rules of succession applying to the office of local headman (or a close equivalent), without reference to rules of succession prevailing on higher levels of political integration.

[NA] Missing data (354)

[1] Patrilineal heir (408)

[2] Matrilineal heir (101)

[3] Nonhered: appointed by auth. (43)

[4] Nonhered: seniority (28)

[5] Nonhered: influence (45)

[6] Nonhered: election (116)

[7] Nonhered: inf. consensus (87)

[9] Absence of office (109)


EA073. Political succession: hereditary succession

Rules of succession applying to the office of local headman (or a close equivalent), without reference to rules of succession prevailing on higher levels of political integration.

[NA] Missing data (354)

[1] Son (307)

[2] Patrilineal heir (101)

[3] Sister's son (37)

[4] Matrilineal heir (64)

[5] Nonhereditary (319)

[9] Absence of office (109)


EA074. Inheritance rule for real property (land)

The rule or practice governing the disposition or transmission of a man's property in land (exclusive of any dower right of his widow). [Note that Murdock (1963a) warned that the codes for this variable had "proved inadequate and in serious need of revision," and that the coded data "should consequently be used only with circumspection"].

[NA] Missing data (435)

[1] No inher. of real property (223)

[2] Matrilineal by sister's sons (31)

[3] Matrilineal by heirs (60)

[4] Children, less for daughters (43)

[5] Children (55)

[6] Patrilineal by heirs (90)

[7] Patrilineal by sons (354)


EA075. Inheritance distribution for real property (land)

Following the inheritance rule for real property (land), this variable indicates how real property is distributed among several individuals of the same category. [Note that Murdock (1963a) warned that the codes for this variable had "proved inadequate and in serious need of revision," and that the coded data "should consequently be used only with circumspection"].

[NA] Missing data (471)

[1] Equally distributed (307)

[2] Best qualified (20)

[3] Ultimogeniture (22)

[4] Primogeniture (248)

[9] No inher. of real property (223)


EA076. Inheritance rule for movable property

The rule or practice governing the disposition or transmission of a man's movable property (exclusive of any dower right of his widow). [Note that Murdock (1963a) warned that the codes for this variable had "proved inadequate and in serious need of revision," and that the coded data "should consequently be used only with circumspection"].

[NA] Missing data (382)

[1] No inher. of mov. property (132)

[2] Matrilineal by sister's sons (45)

[3] Matrilineal by heirs (73)

[4] Children, less for daughters (68)

[5] Children (89)

[6] Patrilineal by heirs (87)

[7] Patrilineal by sons (415)


EA077. Inheritance distribution for movable property

Following the inheritance rule for movable property, this variable indicates how movable property is distributed among several individuals of the same category. [Note that Murdock (1963a) warned that the codes for this variable had "proved inadequate and in serious need of revision," and that the coded data "should consequently be used only with circumspection"].

[NA] Missing data (436)

[1] Equally distributed (444)

[2] Best qualified (20)

[3] Ultimogeniture (17)

[4] Primogeniture (244)

[9] No inher. of mov. property (130)


EA078. Norms of premarital sexual behavior of girls

Prevailing standards of sex behavior for unmarried women.

[NA] Missing data (693)

[1] Precluded by early marriage (47)

[2] Prohibited, strongly sanctioned (153)

[3] Prohibited but weakly sanctioned (121)

[4] Permitted, sanction if pregnancy (58)

[5] Trial marriage (11)

[6] Permitted, no sanctions (208)


EA079. House construction: ground plan

Ground plan of the prevailing type of dwelling.

[NA] Missing data (94)

[1] Semicircular (6)

[2] Circular (513)

[3] Elliptical (43)

[4] Polygonal (2)

[5] Rectangular (582)

[6] Quadrangular around interior (51)


EA080. House construction: floor level

Floor level of the prevailing type of dwelling.

[NA] Missing data (112)

[1] Subterranean (86)

[2] Floor level with ground (941)

[3] Elevated slightly (73)

[4] Raised substantially (79)


EA081. House construction: wall material

Wall material of the prevailing type of dwelling.

[NA] Missing data (209)

[1] Stone, stucco or brick (61)

[2] Plaster, clay or similar (143)

[3] Wood, incl. bamboo (194)

[4] Bark (19)

[5] Hides or skins (10)

[6] Fabric (25)

[7] Mats (86)

[8] Grass, leaves or thatch (50)

[9] Adobe, clay or brick (185)

[10] Open walls (17)

[11] Walls not diff. from roof (292)


EA082. House construction: shape of roof

Shape of roof of the prevailing type of dwelling.

[NA] Missing data (156)

[1] Rounded or semi-cylindrical (38)

[2] Hemispherical (103)

[3] Beehive shaped (58)

[4] Conical (353)

[5] Semi-hemispherical (8)

[6] One slope (15)

[7] Flat (95)

[8] Two slopes (377)

[9] Four slopes (88)


EA083. House construction: roofing materials

Roofing materials of the prevailing type of dwelling.

[NA] Missing data (131)

[1] Stone or slate (3)

[2] Plaster, clay or similar (12)

[3] Wood, incl. bamboo (59)

[4] Bark (39)

[5] Hides or skins (46)

[6] Fabric (24)

[7] Mats (44)

[8] Grass, leaves or thatch (780)

[9] Earth or turf (127)

[10] Ice or snow (7)

[11] Tile or fired brick (19)


EA084. House construction (secondary house type): ground plan

Ground plan of secondary or alternative house type.

[NA] Missing data (938)

[1] Semicircular (7)

[2] Circular (145)

[3] Elliptical (13)

[4] Polygonal (1)

[5] Rectangular (178)

[6] Quadrangular around interior (9)


EA085. House construction (secondary house type): floor level

Floor level of secondary or alternative house type.

[NA] Missing data (940)

[1] Subterranean (25)

[2] Floor level with ground (284)

[3] Elevated slightly (21)

[4] Raised substantially (21)


EA086. House construction (secondary house type): wall material

Wall material of secondary or alternative house type.

[NA] Missing data (964)

[1] Stone, stucco or brick (21)

[2] Plaster, clay or similar (35)

[3] Wood, incl. bamboo (38)

[4] Bark (10)

[5] Hides or skins (3)

[6] Fabric (4)

[7] Mats (18)

[8] Grass, leaves or thatch (21)

[9] Adobe, clay or brick (46)

[10] Open walls (7)

[11] Walls not diff. from roof (124)


EA087. House construction (secondary house type): shape of roof

Shape of roof of secondary or alternative house type.

[NA] Missing data (959)

[1] Rounded or semi-cylindrical (1)

[2] Hemispherical (29)

[3] Beehive shaped (10)

[4] Conical (106)

[5] Semi-hemispherical (8)

[6] One slope (8)

[7] Flat (40)

[8] Two slopes (101)

[9] Four slopes (29)


EA088. House construction (secondary house type): roofing materials

Roofing materials of secondary or alternative house type.

[NA] Missing data (945)

[1] Stone or slate (1)

[2] Plaster, clay or similar (1)

[3] Wood, incl. bamboo (15)

[4] Bark (33)

[5] Hides or skins (28)

[6] Fabric (4)

[7] Mats (33)

[8] Grass, leaves or thatch (185)

[9] Earth or turf (37)

[10] Ice or snow (0)

[11] Tile or fired brick (9)


EA090. Political integration

Political integration of the society with neighbouring communities and/or a larger state; this is the version that appeared in Murdock (1957)'s World Ethnographic Sample (WES).

[NA] Missing data (956)

[1] Absence, even locally (23)

[2] Autonomous communities (131)

[3] Peace groups among communities (9)

[4] Minimal states (79)

[5] Little states (28)

[6] States (42)

[8] Dependent societies (23)


EA094. Political succession: version from Murdock (1957)

Rule of succession; for cross-cultural comparibility this is the prevailing rule of succession for the headman of a local community or a near equivalent thereto; this is the version that appeared in Murdock (1957)'s World Ethnographic Sample (WES).

[NA] Missing data (997)

[11] Patrilineal, son (67)

[12] Patrilineal, younger brother (9)

[13] Patrilineal, other/unspecified (61)

[24] Matrilineal, sister's son (8)

[25] Matrilineal, yonger brother (8)

[26] Matrilineal, other/unspecified (14)

[39] Nonhered, appointed by auth. (11)

[49] Nonhered, election (26)

[59] Nonhered, informal (41)

[69] Nonhered, council (19)

[99] Absence of political auth. (30)


EA112. Trance states

Presence/absence of culturally patterned forms of altered states of consciousness. Codes distinguish between two types of altered states: PossessionTrance, considered to be a manifestation of spirit possession, and a Trance state that is not explained by possession.

[NA] Missing data (633)

[1] Trance, no possession (135)

[2] Possession (45)

[3] T due to P only; P causes T only (67)

[4] Two T states, one due to P; P expl. T and others (93)

[5] T and P, but T not due to P (79)

[6] T due to P only; P explains T and others (85)

[7] Two T states, one due to P; P explains T only (36)

[8] No trance or possession (118)


EA113. Societal rigidity

Degree of rigidity in social structures. Considers stratification of society, whether status distinctions are earned or ascribed, degree of hierarchy of political system, extent to which residence and group membership are fixed, centralization of authority, flexibility of religious rites.

[NA] Missing data (1259)

[1] Rigid (13)

[2] Flexible (19)


EA202. Population size

Population of ethnic group as a whole, unless otherwise noted in "Comments". Note that source differs by society; EA bibliography is source where possible, otherwise Ember (1992).

[NA] Missing data (338)



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