Liang

論工業社會及其未來-63

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So certain artificial needs have been created that fall into group 2, hence serve the need for the power process. Advertising and marketing techniques have been developed that make many people feel they need things that their grandparents never desired or even dreamed of. It requires serious effort to earn enough money to satisfy these artificial needs, hence they fall into group 2. (But see paragraphs 80-82.) Modern man must satisfy his need for the power process largely through pursuit of the artificial needs created by the advertising and marketing industry [11], and through surrogate activities.

[11] Is the drive for endless material acquisition really an artificial creation of the advertising and marketing industry? Certainly there is no innate human drive for material acquisition. There have been many cultures in which people have desired little material wealth beyond what was necessary to satisfy their basic physical needs (Australian aborigines, traditional Mexican peasant culture, some African cultures). On the other hand there have also been many pre-industrial cultures in which material acquisition has played an important role. So we can’t claim that today’s acquisition-oriented culture is exclusively a creation of the advertising and marketing industry. But it is clear that the advertising and marketing industry has had an important part in creating that culture. The big corporations that spend millions on advertising wouldn’t be spending that kind of money without solid proof that they were getting it back in increased sales. One member of FC met a sales manager a couple of years ago who was frank enough to tell him, “Our job is to make people buy things they don’t want and don’t need.” He then described how an untrained novice could present people with the facts about a product, and make no sales at all, while a trained and experienced professional salesman would make lots of sales to the same people. This shows that people are manipulated into buying things they don’t really want.

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因此落入第二類的某些人造需求被創造出來,以滿足對於權力進程的需求。廣告和行銷技巧被發展以讓更多人覺得自己需要他們祖父母從來不曾想要甚至想過的事物。這需要非常努力以賺取足夠的錢滿足這些人造的需求,因此他們落入第二類(但參見 80-82 段)。現代人滿足對權力進程的需求必須大部分透過追求廣告業和行銷產業創造的人造需求 [11],以及透過替代性活動來滿足。

[11] 對於無止盡物質獲取的慾望真的是廣告業和行銷產業的人造物嗎?確實人類並沒有在物質獲取上天生的慾望。在許多文化中人們對超過滿足基本生理需求所必需的物質財富沒有太多渴望(澳大利亞原住民、傳統墨西哥農民文化、一些非洲文化)。另一方面在許多工業化前的社會中物質獲取在文化中扮演重要角色。因此我們不能宣稱今天物質獲取傾向的社會完全是廣告業和行銷產業的產物。但廣告業和行銷產業顯然在創造這個文化上有舉足輕重的作用。花費數百萬在廣告上的大公司若非有扎實的證據能從增加的銷售額拿回這些錢,否則是不會這樣亂花的。一位 FC 的成員幾年前遇到一位銷售經理,直言不諱地告訴他:「我們的工作是讓人們買他們不想要或是不需要的東西。」然後他描述一位未經訓練的新手可以向人們展現一個商品的事實卻完全賣不出去,而一位訓練有素且經驗豐富的專業銷售員可以向同一批人賣很多。這顯示了人們被操縱去買他們不真正想要的東西。

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論工業社會及其未來-現代社會權力進程的中斷

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