In primitive societies, physical necessities generally fall into group 2: They can be obtained, but only at the cost of serious effort. But modern society tends to guaranty the physical necessities to everyone [9] in exchange for only minimal effort, hence physical needs are pushed into group 1. (There may be disagreement about whether the effort needed to hold a job is “minimal”; but usually, in lower- to middle- level jobs, whatever effort is required is merely that of OBEDIENCE. You sit or stand where you are told to sit or stand and do what you are told to do in the way you are told to do it. Seldom do you have to exert yourself seriously, and in any case you have hardly any autonomy in work, so that the need for the power process is not well served.)

[9] We leave aside the “underclass.” We are speaking of the mainstream.


在原始社會,生理需求通常是第二類:他們可以被獲取,但需要花費巨大的努力。但現代社會傾向保證讓每個人 [9] 以最小努力滿足生理需求,因此生理需求就被推到了第一類。(保住工作所需的努力是否「極小」可能有爭論;但通常在中低階的工作,唯一需要的努力僅僅是服從。你坐在或站在你被告知要坐或站的地方然後做你被告知要做的事用你被告知的方法做。你很少需要真的努力,而且在工作中你幾乎沒有任何自主性可言,因此對權力進程的需求沒有被好好滿足。)

[9] 我們擱置「下層階級」。我們討論的是主流。

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