Liang

論工業社會及其未來-26

發布於

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Oversocialization can lead to low self-esteem, a sense of powerlessness, defeatism, guilt, etc. One of the most important means by which our society socializes children is by making them feel ashamed of behavior or speech that is contrary to society’s expectations. If this is overdone, or if a particular child is especially susceptible to such feelings, he ends by feeling ashamed of HIMSELF. Moreover the thought and the behavior of the oversocialized person are more restricted by society’s expectations than are those of the lightly socialized person. The majority of people engage in a significant amount of naughty behavior. They lie, they commit petty thefts, they break traffic laws, they goof off at work, they hate someone, they say spiteful things or they use some underhanded trick to get ahead of the other guy. The oversocialized person cannot do these things, or if he does do them he generates in himself a sense of shame and self-hatred. The oversocialized person cannot even experience, without guilt, thoughts or feelings that are contrary to the accepted morality; he cannot think “unclean” thoughts. And socialization is not just a matter of morality; we are socialized to conform to many norms of behavior that do not fall under the heading of morality. Thus the oversocialized person is kept on a psychological leash and spends his life running on rails that society has laid down for him. In many oversocialized people this results in a sense of constraint and powerlessness that can be a severe hardship. We suggest that oversocialization is among the more serious cruelties that human beings inflict on one another.

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過度社會化可以導致低自尊、無力感、失敗主義以及愧疚等等。我們社會使兒童社會化最重要的手段之一就是讓他們對與社會期待相左的行為或言論感到羞恥。如果做得太過火,或某個孩子對這種感受特別敏感,他就會對自己感到羞恥。此外過度社會化的人的思想和行為比起輕度社會化的人更被社會的期待約束。大多數人會做出許多不守規矩的行為。他們說謊,他們偷雞摸狗,他們違反交通法規,他們工作偷懶,他們討厭某人,他們說些惡毒的話,或他們用一些詭計以超越別人。過度社會化的人不能做這些事,或是如果他們做了這些事會有一股羞恥感和自我厭惡感油然而生。過度社會化的人甚至不能不帶愧疚地的體驗那些違反道德觀的想法或感受;他們不能有「不乾淨的」想法。而且社會化不只關乎道德;我們被社會化以遵循許多無關道德的行為規範。因此過度社會化的人被心理的狗鍊拴著,一輩子在社會鋪設的軌道上跑著。對許多過分社會化的人來說這引致了可能十分嚴峻的約束感和無力感。我們認為過度社會化是人類強加在彼此的殘忍暴行中較嚴重的那一種。

喔我今天又在上班的時候偷懶了。

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