科技論文解密筆記 - Method



  1. Method部分的概要
  2. Move in Methods (sub-title)
  3. Common Phrases for 7 moves in Methods
  4. Condensed(濃縮)/Extended(擴展)Style


  • Descriptive (no evaluate, no interpretation)
  • 研究是要證明一件事,不是寫個人觀點(Evidence-based)
  • Convince the readers (experts in the field)
  • 提供充足的內容有關data collection,例如:materials、參與者、設備、條件、過程
  • 常見是把Method作為第一部分寫
  • Method部分多數在Introduction之後,若是在附錄,這可能是指Method並不重要


Language use in Method sections


  • Methods and materials
  • Methodology
  • Experimental

Move in Methods (sub-title)

Common but not necessary moves

PAST-TENSE is usually used in Method (or between past and present). Describe something you did in the past.

  1. Overview (How to collect data, why methods are used)
  2. Research Aims / Hypotheses / Research Question (描述research goals,可以讓readers知道為什麼用這方法可以fit research question)
  3. Subjects / Participants / Materials / Sample (數據從哪來?描述一下相關人士等。)
  4. Location / Condition (Where and how the data is collected and possibly why?)
  5. Procedures / Data Collection (如何準備materials,e.g. How to administrated the survey in details?)
  6. Limitations (Related to the field, not really exist in writing, common in education. 因為同一問卷對不同人的回應結果會很不同。)
  7. Data Analysis (How the data was analysed?)

以一篇sample paper的sub-title為例:

  • Instrument(實驗用的設備,e.g. 用survey收集數據)
  • Terminology(terms used in this study)
  • Sample(e.g. 填了的survey數據)
  • Procedure
  • Analysis

Common Phrases for 7 moves in Methods


Move 1 - Overview


Move 1 - Overview

Move 2 - Research Aim

Compare and identity some factors.

Move 2 - Research Aim

Move 3 - Subject / Materials

大多使用past tensepassive voice

e.g. The sample was representative with respect to xxx.

e.g. Forty-seven students studying xxx were recruited for this study.

e.g. The sample consisted of 200 students, 75 of whom belonged to minority groups.

Move 4 - Location / Condition

Move 4 - Location / Condition

Move 5 - Procedure


e.g. The data were normalised using...

e.g. Data collected using xxx structure in xxx.

e.g. The experiments were run using custom software written in ...

e.g. The solution was washed X times with ...

Move 6 - Limitation

e.g. Further data collection is required to determine exactly how X affects Y.

e.g. In this investigation there are several sources for error. The main error is ...

e.g. The small size of dataset meant that it was not possible to ... (small dataset -> result may not generalisable)

Move 7 - Analysis

e.g. Statistical analysis was performed using XXX.

e.g. Data management and analysis were performed using XXX.

e.g. A XXX analysis was conducted in order to assess the strength of ...


Only introduce the necessary information, no redundant!

Always extend in education field, explain and justify why choosing the way to collect data and answer research question.

e.g. This study's anonymous survey comprises two major parts.

e.g. The secondary part of the questionnaire includes 37 questions in xxx.


  • 考慮readers:他們會是這方面的專家還是外行人?會否需要更多解釋?是不是multi-disciplinary?
  • 考慮field:standardized procedures?
  • Do you have to justify the chosen method?
Justify the methods

Disciplinary Variation in the Methods Section

Condensed or Extended


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