Elementary

I know nothing.

Thucydides, Pericles' Funeral Oration 在阵亡将士葬礼上的讲话

希腊与敌对城市斯巴达爆发伯罗奔尼撒战争(公元前431—公元前404)后的第一个冬天,伯里克利在国葬上发表演说,歌颂在战争中阵亡的雅典公民们,此演说被历史学家修昔底德记录了下来。斯巴达的围困战术导致1/4的雅典居民在1年内战死,但直到27年后,雅典才投降。

过去在此发表过演说的许多人,都称颂我们在葬礼上致辞这一习惯。他们认为,在国葬时对阵亡将士致辞是一种荣誉的表示。在我看来,他们在行动中所体现的荣誉,已经通过行动充分体现出了自身的光荣,正如你们在这次国葬典礼中所见的一样。我认为,这许多勇士的声誉和英雄气概不致因旁人的说法而受损,不致因他人的言辞而增一分或减一分。发言者很难做到恰如其分,更难让听者信以为真。一方面,熟知死者事迹的人会觉得演讲者未将事迹和盘托出;另一方面,那些不熟悉死者的人,会在听到那些己所不能及的功绩时,因嫉妒而认为演讲者夸大其词。人只能在一定程度内才能容忍对他人的赞美,界限就是他们相信那些列举的事迹,自己也能做到。一旦超出这个界限,他们就会嫉妒和怀疑。但是,既然我们的祖先已经建立了这样的传统,那么,我便有义务遵守,尽我所能来满足你们的期望和想法。

我首先要提到我们的先祖们:在这样的场合,首先称颂他们的光荣,不仅公平,而且理所应当。我们的祖辈世世代代生活于此,凭借自身的勇敢无畏守护着这块土地,将自由传承到现在。倘若说我们祖先值得歌颂,那么我们的父辈们更值得我们歌颂。因为他们除了继承土地之外,还用鲜血和汗水扩展了这个帝国,传给我们这一代。今天集合于此的我们,绝大多数正值盛年,我们几乎在所有方面都扩张了帝国的势力。我们从各个方面加强了祖国的实力,无论在平时还是战时,帝国皆能自给自足。关于我们用以取得现有优势的军事成就,关于我们以及父辈英勇地击退希腊或希腊以外敌人的入侵的事迹,听众早已熟知,在此我就不再详述了。我要说的是我们是如何取得今日的辉煌的,我们是在何种政体下发展壮大,我们的民族习惯是怎样的。我在解答了这些问题之后,再来歌颂阵亡将士。因为我认为在目前情况下,这样不仅妥帖,而且,对全体与会人员而言,无论他是公民还是外乡人,也会大有裨益。

我们的政治制度没有照搬任何邻邦,与此相反,我们的政治制度却成为其他城邦效仿的模本。本邦制度之所以被称为民主制,是因为城邦是由多数而非少数人管理。在解决私人争端时,法律面前人人都享有同等的正义;想要担任公职,要看一个人的才能,而不是社会地位,阶级地位和财政情况都不会阻碍个人实现价值。任何人,只要他对城邦有所贡献,绝不会掣肘于个人的贫穷境遇。我们在政治生活中享有自由,我们在日常生活中也是如此。我们的街坊邻居做他自己喜好的事情的时候,我们不会因此而愤怒,也不会因此而时常给他们脸色看,尽管摆脸不会对他们造成实际的伤害。我们在私人关系上宽松自在,但作为公民,我们遵纪守法。我们尊重权威,敬畏法律。我们尤其遵从那些保护受伤害者的法律,不论这些法律是成文的,还是虽不成文,但一旦违反就是公认耻辱的法则,我们都会遵守。

另外,我们安排了种种娱乐活动,帮助人们在劳动后恢复精神。全年,我们都会举行各种竞技会和祭祀活动。我们的居所华丽雅致,每天都赏心悦目,赶走心中的忧郁。我们的城邦如此伟大,吸引全世界的产品在我们的港口荟萃云集。因此,对雅典公民们而言,享受其他地方的产品,就如同享受本地的产品一样自然。

再来看我们的军事政策,也与敌人的有所不同。我们的城邦对全世界开放,也不制定法律阻止外人探访或学习,尽管他们可能会从我们的自由开放中得利。我们所依赖的不是制度和政策,而是公民的民族精神。至于教育制度,我们的对手从孩提时代就接受残酷的训练,以培养其男子气概,而在雅典,我们生活得随心所欲,但也随时准备对付各种可能的危险,并不逊分毫。以下的事实可以证实这一点:当斯巴达人入侵我们的领土时,他们不是单独前来,而是纠集所有同盟者一同进攻。而我们雅典公民们在进攻邻邦领土时,却只依靠自己的力量。虽然我们在异乡作战,他们则是为保卫家乡而战,但我们还是常常轻易击败他们。敌人没有和我们的全部军事力量交过手,因为我们的关注点在海军,以及派遣公民去陆地上完成各项任务。因此,敌人与我们的一支军队交战的时候,如果他们获胜的话,就夸耀说他们打败了我们的全军;如果他们战败了,他们就说是败于众人之手。我们宁愿用轻松的心情而不是艰苦的训练来应付危险。我们的勇气源于天性,而不是来自法律的胁迫。我们具有两重优势,我们不必花费时间来训练自己去忍受那些尚未来临的痛苦,但当痛苦降临时,我们的表现和那些受过训练的人一样无畏。

当然,我们的城邦值得赞美的优点远不止这些。我们追求美好,却没有流于奢侈,我们追求智慧,却没有因此而过于柔弱。我们利用财富,而不夸耀财富。我们不以贫穷为耻,真正的耻辱是为了避免贫穷而不择手段。我们的公职人员,在参与政务的同时也关注私人事务;我们的普通公民,虽长年累月地忙于劳作,但仍对公共事务有公正的裁判。和其他任何民族都不同,我们雅典公民们认为,一个不关心公共事务的人不仅仅是只顾自己的人,而且是个无用的人。我们雅典公民们即使不是发起者,也可以对所有的问题进行裁判。我们不把讨论当作行动的绊脚石,而是把它视作任何明智之举不可或缺的首要前提。另外,我们将大胆冒险和深思熟虑有效融合在一起,并发挥到极致;虽然,决定往往是无知愚昧和举棋不定的产物。但是,真正勇敢的人无疑应属于那种人,他们最了解灾患和幸福的不同,而且在危险面前从不退缩。我们的慷慨大方同样与众不同。我们结交朋友是予人好处,而非从他人那里渔利。帮助他人使我们成为更有价值的人,因此友谊更为可靠,我们继续表示友善,使受惠于我们的人永远心存感激。但是,如果受惠者在感情上缺乏同样的热忱,他们的回报就好像在偿还一笔债务,而非慷慨的赠与。只有雅典公民们,他们在施惠别人时不畏后果,不计得失,而是出于一种慷慨大度的信念。

一言以蔽之,我们的城邦是全希腊的学校。我认为世界上只有像雅典公民们才能自我独立,在各个方面表现得温文尔雅且多才多艺。这些并不是在此等场合空自吹嘘,而是实事求是,我们城邦的实力便是靠这些品质获得的,在现有的国家中,只有雅典在遇到考验时,能证明自己比传扬的名声更伟大;只有在雅典,入侵的敌人不以战败为耻辱;受其统治的属民不会质疑统治者是否够格。现代乃至后世也将称颂我们。世人已经目睹我们的伟大,而且我们也已留下强有力的证据。我们并不需要一个荷马(3)为我们唱赞歌,也不需要任何人的歌颂,因为他们的歌颂只能使我们陶醉一时,而他们对于事实的印象仅是沧海一粟。我们的冒险精神让我们征服海陆,所到之处,我们对敌人造成了痛苦,对朋友施加了恩惠,都为后世留下了不朽的纪念。这就是雅典,这里的人儿抱着绝不失去她的誓言,慷慨而战,高贵赴死。因此,他们中的每一位幸存者,都应为此承受痛苦。

的确,我如此大费周章讨论我们城邦的特性,那是因为我要向你们说明,在这场战斗中,我们的利益与那些人全然不同,他们没有此等福分可失;我想用清晰的实证来向你们证明我的歌颂。现在,歌颂阵亡将士最重要的部分,我已经说完了。因为我已经赞颂了雅典,赞颂了兴我城邦的这些人的豪雄气概,也赞美了类似他们的人的英雄主义,你们会发现,像他们一样的希腊人凤毛麟角,他们的声望无愧于功绩。在我看来,他们的献身证明了自身的英雄气概,这是他们初次表现品质也好,还是最后的证明也罢。公正地讲,他们为捍卫祖国而战的英勇行为,应当抵消他们在其他方面的不足,他们的优点弥补了他们的缺点,他们作为一个公民的贡献超过他们个人所造成的过失。在这些人中间,富人没有因为想要继续享受其财富而变得怯懦,穷人也没有因为将来会获得的自由和富裕而苟且偷生。他们想要的不是个人的幸福,而是要严惩敌人。在他们看来,这是最光荣的冒险。他们立场坚定,临危不惧,把自身利益置之度外,坚信能够击溃敌人,并守望这份信念。成败不可测,在真正的战斗中,他们勇往直前,相信自我。因此,他们宁愿在抵抗中牺牲,也不愿在屈服中偷生。他们没有做有损荣誉的事,他们在危难面前坚守阵地。顷刻间,他们到达了命运的顶峰,不是恐惧的顶峰而是光荣的顶峰,然后,就与世长辞了。

他们的慨然赴死无愧于“希腊人”三个字。你们这些幸存者虽然可以祈求一个更为幸福的命运,但是在战场上,你们必须有坚定的决心。保家卫国不是单从理论上而言,虽然演说者可以就此说出非常精彩的演说词,但你们不能满足于只从字面上理解这些优势。你们自己应当了解雅典的力量,并且每天都要瞩目于她的伟大,直到对她的热爱盈溢了你们的心头。然后,当你们认识到她的伟大之处时,你们定会反省和深思,这些人之所以能赢得这一切,是由于他们的勇敢无畏,他们的责任感,他们在行动中体现的那种强烈的荣誉感。在冒险征程中,任何个人的失败都不会让他们觉得是城邦使他们丧失勇气,他们反而会把他们认为最光荣的东西奉献出来。他们每个人都把生命奉献出来,这使他们获得了万古长青的赞誉。至于坟墓,那不只是安葬他们遗骸的地方,而且是存放他们荣誉的最崇高的圣地,它将永远铭刻于人心,人们一有机会就会在这里缅怀他们的丰功伟绩。英雄们把整个大地作为他们的坟墓,甚至在远离家乡的土地上,他们的墓志铭不是铭刻于记功碑上,而是铭记在人民心中。你们应以这些人为榜样,幸福是自由的成果,而自由是勇敢的成果,不要低估战争的危险。那些不幸的人并不比幸福的人更加敢于牺牲自己,他们没有希望,他们保全生命结果也许是苦难,对他们来说,任何失败都将导致最可怕的后果。可以肯定,对于一个自尊的人而言,懦弱引起的堕落,比之充满爱国激情全力以赴战死沙场,不知要悲惨多少倍!

因此,我不会对死者的父母表示哀悼,他们有很多也在场,我会加以安慰。他们知道,人生旅程中充满了车载斗量的机遇。但是,像他们这样光荣牺牲,并让你们哀痛,这的确是幸运的。对他们而言,生命与幸福相伴到最后。我知道,这一点很难说得通,当你们看到健在之人快乐的时候,也许会勾起对过去美好的回忆。人不会因为未曾经历过的美好而悲伤,却会因为失去曾经拥有过的东西而心痛。然而,你们中间那些适龄的人仍要生儿育女,完成逝者的未竟之愿。新生的子女不仅可以使你们忘却已逝之人,还可以充实城邦的力量,护卫国土的安全;因为一个公正或公平的政体,绝不能指望那些不曾面对一个父亲的抉择、利益和恐惧的人,正如他的后辈一样。那些已过盛年的公民,一定要为你们有幸享受了生命中最美好的时光而庆幸,你们的余年不长,死者的美名会使你们振奋。唯有对荣誉的热爱是永恒的,鼓舞一颗年老无助之心的是荣誉,而不是某些人所说的财富。

至于那些烈士的儿子和兄弟们,我知道有一场艰巨的斗争摆在你们面前。人人都会颂扬逝者,即使你们功勋卓越,但你们仍会发觉很难超越,甚至难以接近逝者的荣誉。活着的人往往嫉妒那些与他们竞争的人,而对于那些退出竞争的逝者而言,他们总是心怀善意去尊敬。另一方面,现在你们中一些人已经成为寡妇,我要对你们说一些妇道美德,一切都包含在我这简短告诫里:你们的伟大光荣没有逊色于女性所应有的自然特征,妇女最伟大之处很少为男人们所谈及,不论他们对此赞同还是反对。

现在,我的任务已然完成。我尽全力履行了职责,至少在表面上已经满足了法律要求。今天参加葬礼的人们已经祭献了死者,他们的子女将由城邦出钱抚养至成年。城邦拿出重金奖励那些死者和他们的遗属,就像给予勇气竞赛中优胜者花冠一样。哪里对于勇气的奖赏最大,哪里就可以找到最优秀的公民。

现在,你们对亲友已经表达了哀悼,你们可以离开了。

——————————————————————————————

Most of those who have spoken here before me have commended the lawgiver who added this oration to our other funeral customs. It seemed to them a worthy thing that such an honor should be given at their burial to the dead who have fallen on the field of battle. But I should have preferred that, when men's deeds have been brave, they should be honored in deed only, and with such an honor as this public funeral, which you are now witnessing. Then the reputation of many would not have been imperiled on the eloquence or want of eloquence of one, and their virtues believed or not as he spoke well or ill. For it is difficult to say neither too little nor too much; and even moderation is apt not to give the impression of truthfulness. The friend of the dead who knows the facts is likely to think that the words of the speaker fall short of his knowledge and of his wishes; another who is not so well informed, when he hears of anything which surpasses his own powers, will be envious and will suspect exaggeration. Mankind are tolerant of the praises of others so long as each hearer thinks that he can do as well or nearly as well himself, but, when the speaker rises above him, jealousy is aroused and he begins to be incredulous. However, since our ancestors have set the seal of their approval upon the practice, I must obey, and to the utmost of my power shall endeavor to satisfy the wishes and beliefs of all who hear me.

I will speak first of our ancestors, for it is right and seemly that now, when we are lamenting the dead, a tribute should be paid to their memory. There has never been a time when they did not inhabit this land, which by their valor they will have handed down from generation to generation, and we have received from them a free state. But if they were worthy of praise, still more were our fathers, who added to their inheritance, and after many a struggle transmitted to us their sons this great empire. And we ourselves assembled here today, who are still most of us in the vigor of life, have carried the work of improvement further, and have richly endowed our city with all things, so that she is sufficient for herself both in peace and war. Of the military exploits by which our various possessions were acquired, or of the energy with which we or our fathers drove back the tide of war, Hellenic or Barbarian, I will not speak; for the tale would be long and is familiar to you. But before I praise the dead, I should like to point out by what principles of action we rose ~ to power, and under what institutions and through what manner of life our empire became great. For I conceive that such thoughts are not unsuited to the occasion, and that this numerous assembly of citizens and strangers may profitably listen to them.

Our form of government does not enter into rivalry with the institutions of others. Our government does not copy our neighbors', but is an example to them. It is true that we are called a democracy, for the administration is in the hands of the many and not of the few. But while there exists equal justice to all and alike in their private disputes, the claim of excellence is also recognized; and when a citizen is in any way distinguished, he is preferred to the public service, not as a matter of privilege, but as the reward of merit. Neither is poverty an obstacle, but a man may benefit his country whatever the obscurity of his condition. There is no exclusiveness in our public life, and in our private business we are not suspicious of one another, nor angry with our neighbor if he does what he likes; we do not put on sour looks at him which, though harmless, are not pleasant. While we are thus unconstrained in our private business, a spirit of reverence pervades our public acts; we are prevented from doing wrong by respect for the authorities and for the laws, having a particular regard to those which are ordained for the protection of the injured as well as those unwritten laws which bring upon the transgressor of them the reprobation of the general sentiment.

And we have not forgotten to provide for our weary spirits many relaxations from toil; we have regular games and sacrifices throughout the year; our homes are beautiful and elegant; and the delight which we daily feel in all these things helps to banish sorrow. Because of the greatness of our city the fruits of the whole earth flow in upon us; so that we enjoy the goods of other countries as freely as our own.

Then, again, our military training is in many respects superior to that of our adversaries. Our city is thrown open to the world, though and we never expel a foreigner and prevent him from seeing or learning anything of which the secret if revealed to an enemy might profit him. We rely not upon management or trickery, but upon our own hearts and hands. And in the matter of education, whereas they from early youth are always undergoing laborious exercises which are to make them brave, we live at ease, and yet are equally ready to face the perils which they face. And here is the proof: The Lacedaemonians come into Athenian territory not by themselves, but with their whole confederacy following; we go alone into a neighbor's country; and although our opponents are fighting for their homes and we on a foreign soil, we have seldom any difficulty in overcoming them. Our enemies have never yet felt our united strength, the care of a navy divides our attention, and on land we are obliged to send our own citizens everywhere. But they, if they meet and defeat a part of our army, are as proud as if they had routed us all, and when defeated they pretend to have been vanquished by us all.

If then we prefer to meet danger with a light heart but without laborious training, and with a courage which is gained by habit and not enforced by law, are we not greatly the better for it? Since we do not anticipate the pain, although, when the hour comes, we can be as brave as those who never allow themselves to rest; thus our city is equally admirable in peace and in war. For we are lovers of the beautiful in our tastes and our strength lies, in our opinion, not in deliberation and discussion, but that knowledge which is gained by discussion preparatory to action. For we have a peculiar power of thinking before we act, and of acting, too, whereas other men are courageous from ignorance but hesitate upon reflection. And they are surely to be esteemed the bravest spirits who, having the clearest sense both of the pains and pleasures of life, do not on that account shrink from danger. In doing good, again, we are unlike others; we make our friends by conferring, not by receiving favors. Now he who confers a favor is the firmer friend, because he would rather by kindness keep alive the memory of an obligation; but the recipient is colder in his feelings, because he knows that in requiting another's generosity he will not be winning gratitude but only paying a debt. We alone do good to our neighbors not upon a calculation of interest, but in the confidence of freedom and in a frank and fearless spirit. To sum up: I say that Athens is the school of Hellas, and that the individual Athenian in his own person seems to have the power of adapting himself to the most varied forms of action with the utmost versatility and grace. This is no passing and idle word, but truth and fact; and the assertion is verified by the position to which these qualities have raised the state. For in the hour of trial Athens alone among her contemporaries is superior to the report of her. No enemy who comes against her is indignant at the reverses which he sustains at the hands of such a city; no subject complains that his masters are unworthy of him. And we shall assuredly not be without witnesses; there are mighty monuments of our power which will make us the wonder of this and of succeeding ages; we shall not need the praises of Homer or of any other panegyrist whose poetry may please for the moment, although his representation of the facts will not bear the light of day. For we have compelled every land and every sea to open a path for our valor, and have everywhere planted eternal memorials of our friendship and of our enmity. Such is the city for whose sake these men nobly fought and died; they could not bear the thought that she might be taken from them; and every one of us who survive should gladly toil on her behalf.

I have dwelt upon the greatness of Athens because I want to show you that we are contending for a higher prize than those who enjoy none of these privileges, and to establish by manifest proof the merit of these men whom I am now commemorating. Their loftiest praise has been already spoken. For in magnifying the city I have magnified them, and men like them whose virtues made her glorious. And of how few Hellenes 1 can it be said as of them, that their deeds when weighed in the balance have been found equal to their fame! I believe that a death such as theirs has been the true measure of a man's worth; it may be the first revelation of his virtues, but is at any rate their final seal. For even those who come short in other ways may justly plead the valor with which they have fought for their country; they have blotted out the evil with the good, and have benefited the state more by their public services than they have injured her by their private actions. None of these men were enervated by wealth or hesitated to resign the pleasures of life; none of them put off the evil day in the hope, natural to poverty, that a man, though poor, may one day become rich. But, deeming that the punishment of their enemies was sweeter than any of these things, and that they could fall in no nobler cause, they determined at the hazard of their lives to be honorably avenged, and to leave the rest. They resigned to hope their unknown chance of happiness; but in the face of death they resolved to rely upon themselves alone. And when the moment came they were minded to resist and suffer, rather than to fly and save their lives; they ran away from the word of dishonor, but on the battlefield their feet stood fast, and in an instant, at the height of their fortune, they passed away from the scene, not of their fear, but of their glory.

Such was the end of these men; they were worthy of Athens, and the living need not desire to have a more heroic spirit, although they may pray for a less fatal issue. The value of such a spirit is not to be expressed in words. Any one can discourse to you for ever about the advantages of a brave defense, which you know already. But instead of listening to him I would have you day by day fix your eyes upon the greatness of Athens, until you become filled with the love of her; and when you are impressed by the spectacle of her glory, reflect that this empire has been acquired by men who knew their duty and had the courage to do it, who in the hour of conflict had the fear of dishonor always present to them, and who, if ever they failed in an enterprise, would not allow their virtues to be lost to their country, but freely gave their lives to her as the fairest offering which they could present at her feast. The sacrifice which they collectively made was individually repaid to them; for they received again each one for himself a praise which grows not old, and the noblest of all tombs, I speak not of that in which their remains are laid, but of that in which their glory survives, and is proclaimed always and on every fitting occasion both in word and deed. For the whole earth is the tomb of famous men; not only are they commemorated by columns and inscriptions in their own country, but in foreign lands there dwells also an unwritten memorial of them, graven not on stone but in the hearts of men. Make them your examples, and, esteeming courage to be freedom and freedom to be happiness, do not weigh too nicely the perils of war. The unfortunate who has no hope of a change for the better has less reason to throw away his life than the prosperous who, if he survive, is always liable to a change for the worse, and to whom any accidental fall makes the most serious difference. To a man of spirit, cowardice and disaster coming together are far more bitter than death striking him unperceived at a time when he is full of courage and animated by the general hope.

Wherefore I do not now pity the parents of the dead who stand here; I would rather comfort them. You know that your dead have passed away amid manifold vicissitudes; and that they may be deemed fortunate who have gained their utmost honor, whether an honorable death like theirs, or an honorable sorrow like yours, and whose share of happiness has been so ordered that the term of their happiness is likewise the term of their life. I know how hard it is to make you feel this, when the good fortune of others will too often remind you of the gladness which once lightened your hearts. And sorrow is felt at the want of those blessings, not which a man never knew, but which were a part of his life before they were taken from him. Some of you are of an age at which they may hope to have other children, and they ought to bear their sorrow better; not only will the children who may hereafter be born make them forget their own lost ones, but the city will be doubly a gainer. She will not be left desolate, and she will be safer. For a man's counsel cannot have equal weight or worth, when he alone has no children to risk in the general danger. To those of you who have passed their prime, I say: "Congratulate yourselves that you have been happy during the greater part of your days; remember that your life of sorrow will not last long, and be comforted by the glory of those who are gone. For the love of honor alone is ever young, and not riches, as some say, but honor is the delight of men when they are old and useless.

To you who are the sons and brothers of the departed, I see that the struggle to emulate them will be an arduous one. For all men praise the dead, and, however preeminent your virtue may be, I do not say even to approach them, and avoid living their rivals and detractors, but when a man is out of the way, the honor and goodwill which he receives is unalloyed. And, if I am to speak of womanly virtues to those of you who will henceforth be widows, let me sum them up in one short admonition: To a woman not to show more weakness than is natural to her sex is a great glory, and not to be talked about for good or for evil among men.

I have paid the required tribute, in obedience to the law, making use of such fitting words as I had. The tribute of deeds has been paid in part; for the dead have them in deeds, and it remains only that their children should be maintained at the public charge until they are grown up: this is the solid prize with which, as with a garland, Athens crowns her sons living and dead, after a struggle like theirs. For where the rewards of virtue are greatest, there the noblest citizens are enlisted in the service of the state. And now, when you have duly lamented, every one his own dead, you may depart.

喜歡我的文章嗎?
別忘了給點支持與讚賞,讓我知道創作的路上有你陪伴。

CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 版權聲明

看不過癮?

一鍵登入,即可加入全球最優質中文創作社區