历史上的今天,卡尔维诺、福柯和尼采出生

特隆星文明丨 唯心主义者的游乐园

从苹果的系统更新,理解设计中的「控制」与「自由」

沙丘研究所

陈一凡评述:从工程的角度并不难解释封闭系统与开源系统之间的差异,但从设计的角度来看,“如何以一种产品来满足使用需求”就不是一个新问题。Adolf Behne把建筑学中如何客观/功能地对应实用目的的两种态度称为“功能主义”和“理性主义”:前者追求围绕功能塑造独一无二,不可重复的形式,后者寻找典型的和可重复的可以满足一般性需求的形式。

封闭系统类似于前者,这需要设计者的细心打磨与深挖,同时基于行为模式的深刻理解也更容易发展出独特的形式,这解释了为什么很多已有的设计,由苹果来操刀就会被“重新定义”,达到前所未有的体验与高度;而开源系统则放弃了对于某种需求的直接回应,用一种统一的方法来回应大多数需求,更像是建筑学上所谓的“通用空间”。

说得夸张点,前者像是一个小提琴盒子,不管你来拿装小提琴还是冲锋枪,它都和鸟笼子完全不同——鸟笼子不可能设计成鸟的形状。但人的行为模式是复杂的,无论是栖居还是使用智能设备,所以绝对的功能主义与理性主义可能都不可取,因而有了开源系统与封闭系统的互相借鉴。

「圆形监狱」:伟大的抽象比喻,中庸的建成项目

沙丘研究所

文献参考


Foucault, M. (1979). Discipline and Punish : The birth of the prison (Social theory). New York: Vintage Books.

Miller, J. (1993). The passion of Michel Foucault. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Bentham, J. (1791). Panopticon, or, The inspection-house : Containing the idea of a new principle of construction applicable to any sort of establishment, in which persons of any description are to be kept under inspection : And in particular to penitentiary-houses, prisons, houses of industry ... and schools : With a plan of management adapted to the principle : In a series of letters, written in the year 1787 ... (Goldsmiths'-Kress library of economic literature ; no. 14964). London: Reprinted and sold by T. Payne.

Le Bon, G. (2009). The Crowd :A Study of the Popular Mind. S.l.: The Floating Press.

'The more strictly we are watched, the better we behave', leaflet produced by the Bentham Project (UCL, 2010)


A. Brunon-Ernst, Beyond Foucault: New Perspectives on Bentham's Panopticon (Farnham, 2013)


P. Schofield, Bentham: A Guide for the Perplexed (London: Continuum, 2009)


Visitors' Guide, Kilmainham Gaol


Superstudio, Twelve Cautionary Tales for Christmas, 1971

Nietzsche, Friedrich. (2016). The Geneology of Morals: With Linked Table of Contents. N.B.N.


Nietzsche, F., & Kaufmann, W. (1966). Beyond good and evil; prelude to a philosophy of the future. New York: Vintage Books.

Arendt, Hannah. The Human Condition. Charles R. Walgreen Foundation Lectures. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958.

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, and J. B. Baillie. The Phenomenology of Mind. 2d Ed., Rev. and Cor. Throughout. ed. Muirhead Library of Philosophy. London : New York: Allen & Unwin ; Humanities, 1966.

Conference with Foucault on Punitive Society, 1964

Apple,《一场由建筑引发的权力游戏》,建筑志

可以说,五环就是折叠北京的那条折痕

沙丘研究所

你好,非常有帮助的评论!关于睡城这一点,研究是在2017-2018年进行的,相对来说有些滞后